# De Morgan duality

## Idea

In logic, de Morgan duality is a duality between intuitionistic logic and dual-intuitionistic paraconsistent logic. In classical logic and linear logic, it is a self-duality mediated by negation. Although it goes back to Aristotle? (at least), its discovery is generally attributed to Augustus de Morgan.

## The dualities

More explicitly, de Morgan duality is the duality between logical operators as shown in the table below:

Intuitionistic operatorDual-intuitionistic operator
$\top$ (truth)$\perp$ (falsehood)
$\wedge$ (conjunction)$\vee$ (disjunction)
$⇒$ (conditional)$\setminus$ (without?)
$⇔$ (biconditional?)$+$ (exclusive disjunction)
$¬$ ($p⇒\perp$)$-$ ($\top \setminus p$)
$\forall$ (universal quantification)$\exists$ (existential quantification)
$\square$ (necessity?)$◊$ (possibility?)

The first two operators in each column exist in both intuitionistic and dual-intuitionistic propositional logic and the last two in each column exist in both forms of predicate logic and modal logic (respectively), but they are still dual as shown. All of these exist in classical logic (although some of the paraconsistent operators are not widely used), and the two forms of negation ($¬$ and $-$) are the same there.

In linear logic, this extends to a duality between conjunctive and disjunctive operators:

Conjunctive operatorDisjunctive operator
$\top$$0$
$1$$\perp$
$&$$\oplus$
$\otimes$$⅋$
${}^{\perp }$${}^{\perp }$
$\bigwedge$$\bigvee$
$!$$?$

As with classical negation, linear negation is self-dual.

The first two rows of the intuitionistic/dual-intuitionistic/classical duality generalise to arbitrary lattices, including subobject lattices in coherent categories, and from there to the duality between limits and colimits in category theory:

LimitColimit
topbottom
meetjoin
intersectionunion
terminal objectinitial object

So in a way, all duality in category theory is a generalisation of de Morgan duality.

## The de Morgan laws

The de Morgan laws are the statements, valid in various forms of logic, that de Morgan duality is mediated by negation. For example, using the second line of the first table, we have

$\begin{array}{c}¬\left(p\wedge q\right)\equiv ¬p\vee ¬q,\\ ¬\left(p\vee q\right)\equiv ¬p\wedge ¬q.\end{array}$\array { \neg(p \wedge q) \equiv \neg{p} \vee \neg{q} ,\\ \neg(p \vee q) \equiv \neg{p} \wedge \neg{q} . }

Traditionally, the term is reserved for this line.

In the foundations of constructive mathematics, de Morgan's Law usually means the statement

$¬\left(p\wedge q\right)⊢¬p\vee ¬q,$\neg(p \wedge q) \vdash \neg{p} \vee \neg{q} ,

since every other aspect of the first two lines is already constructively valid, the claim that negation mediates the de Morgan self-duality of negation already has a name (the double negation law, equivalent to the principle of excluded middle), and no other line involves only operators that appear in intuitionstic propositional calculus.

Revised on June 10, 2012 05:33:03 by Toby Bartels (98.19.38.0)